Establishing Athlete Brand Among Female Pakistani Fans

Ali Hasaan, Katri Kerem

Resumo


Athlete branding is growing topic in academics. This article seeks to investigate athlete branding by focusing antecedents, attributes and its implication among developing south Asian country, Pakistani female fans to help the efforts of an athlete to become an international brand. The final data sample is comprised of 15 semi-structured interviews with female fans of certain athletes. Participant’s responses indicated that five major antecedent media, oral communication, social agents, team & sports and impression management are basic source of brand awareness among fans. While selecting their favourite athlete two attributes associated to athletes emerged (on field athlete brand attributes and off field athlete brand attributes). Furthermore, Fan’s indicated that athlete brand have positive impact on athlete itself, athlete’s teams and on athlete’s sponsors as well. These implications further discussed in the article. The result of the study can help to establish athlete brand among conservative societies (i.e. south Asian, Muslim) and second stream sports (i.e., Cricket).

Palavras-chave


athlete brand; fan behaviour; loyalty; sport marketing

Referências


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Andrews, D. L., & Jackson, S. J. (2001). Introduction: Sport celebrities, public culture and private experience. In D. L. Andrews & S. J. Jackson (Eds.), Sport Stars: The Cultural Politics of Sporting Celebrity (pp. 1–19). New York: Routledge.

Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Kaplanidou, K. (2013). Athlete brand image: scale development and model test. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13(4), 383–403.

Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Ross, S. (2014). Branding athletes: Exploration and conceptualization of athlete brand image. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 97–106.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Best, S. (2013). Liquid fandom: Neo-tribes and fandom in the context of liquid modernity. Soccer and Society, 14(1), 80–92.

Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Ross, S., Rosado, A., & Maroco, J. (2013). Spectator-Based Brand Equity in Professional Soccer. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(1), 20–32.

Bush, V. D., Bush, A. J., Clark, P., & Bush, R. P. (2005). Girl power and word‐of‐mouth behavior in the flourishing sports market. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(5), 257–264.

Caioli, L. (2014). Messi, Neymar, Ronaldo: Head to Head with the World’s Greatest Players. London: Icon Books Ltd.

Carlson, B. D., & Donavan, D. T. (2013). Human Brands in Sport: Athlete Brand Personality and Identification. Journal of Sport Management, 27(3), 193–206.

Chadwick, S., & Burton, N. (2008). From Beckham to Ronaldo -- Assessing the nature of football player brands. Journal of Sponsorship, 1(4), 307–317.

Chapanga, E., & Choto, I. (2015). A critical evaluation of persuasive communication discourses inspired by celebrity endorsement in the telecommunication sector in Zimbabwe. Journal for Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(1), 58–71.

Charbonneau, J., & Garland, R. (2005). Celebrity or athlete ? New Zealand advertising practitioners ’ views on their use as endorsers. Marketing Bulletin, 16, 35–42.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics Of Qualitative Research: Techniques And Procedures For Developing Grounded Theory (3rd ed.). London: Sage.

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Crawford, G., & Gosling, V. K. (2004). The Myth of the “Puck Bunny”: Female Fans and Men’s Ice Hockey. Sociology, 38(3), 477–493.

Daley, C., & Wolfson, S. (2010). Leadership at distance : English football fans ’ trust in Sven-Göran Eriksson and David Beckham during the 2006. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review, 6(1), 3–18.

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Fink, J. S., Parker, H. M., Brett, M., & Higgins, J. (2009). Off-field behavior of athletes and team identification: using social identity theory and balance theory to explain fan reactions. Journal of Sport Management, 23(2), 142–155.

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Goodman, J. R., Duke, L. L., & Sutherland, J. (2002). Olympic Athletes and Heroism in Advertising: Gendered Concepts of Valor? Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 79(2), 374–393.

Gorn, E. J. (1995). Muhammad Ali, the People’s Champ. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

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Gutiérrez, M., Caus, N., & Ruiz, L. (2011). The influence of parents on achievement orientation and motivation for sport of adolescent athletes with and without disabilities. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(3), 355–382.

Hartmann, T., Stuke, D., & Daschmann, G. (2008). Positive Parasocial Relationships with Drivers Affect Suspense in Racing Sport Spectators. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(1), 24–34.

Hasaan, A., Kerem, K., Biscaia, R., & Agyemang, K. J. A. (2015). Athlete Brand : A Conceptual Framework to Understand Its Antecedents and Consequences. In 2015 North American Society for Sport Management Conference ( NASSM 2015 ) (pp. 317–318). Ottawa.

Hasaan, A., & Khalaid, J. (2014). Overseas fan loyalty: Pakistani football fans and foreign football clubs. In C.-K. Li & T.-W. H. Hung (Eds.), 2014 ISBM International Symposium, Nagoya, Japan (pp. 641–661). Nagoya.

Hsieh, L.-W., Wang, C.-H., & Yoder, T. W. (2011). Factors Associated with Professional Baseball Consumption: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Study. International Journal of Business and Information, 6(2), 135–159.

Hyman, M. R., & Sierra, J. J. (2010). Idolizing sport celebrities: a gateway to psychopathology? Young Consumers, 11(3), 226–238.

Jun, J. W., & Lee, H. M. (2012). The Globalization of Sport and the Mass-Mediated Identity of Hines Ward in South Korea. Journal of Sport Management, 26(2), 103–112.

Kerr, A. K., & Gladden, J. M. (2008). Extending the understanding of professional team brand equity to the global marketplace. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 3(1–2), 58–77.

Ahmed, N., Farooq, O., & Iqbal, J. (2014). Credibility of Celebrity Endorsement and Buying Intentions an Evidence from Students of Islamabad, Pakistan. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 9, 1–13.

Andrews, D. L., & Jackson, S. J. (2001). Introduction: Sport celebrities, public culture and private experience. In D. L. Andrews & S. J. Jackson (Eds.), Sport Stars: The Cultural Politics of Sporting Celebrity (pp. 1–19). New York: Routledge.

Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Kaplanidou, K. (2013). Athlete brand image: scale development and model test. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13(4), 383–403.

Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Ross, S. (2014). Branding athletes: Exploration and conceptualization of athlete brand image. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 97–106.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Best, S. (2013). Liquid fandom: Neo-tribes and fandom in the context of liquid modernity. Soccer and Society, 14(1), 80–92.

Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Ross, S., Rosado, A., & Maroco, J. (2013). Spectator-Based Brand Equity in Professional Soccer. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(1), 20–32.

Bush, V. D., Bush, A. J., Clark, P., & Bush, R. P. (2005). Girl power and word‐of‐mouth behavior in the flourishing sports market. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(5), 257–264.

Caioli, L. (2014). Messi, Neymar, Ronaldo: Head to Head with the World’s Greatest Players. London: Icon Books Ltd.

Carlson, B. D., & Donavan, D. T. (2013). Human Brands in Sport: Athlete Brand Personality and Identification. Journal of Sport Management, 27(3), 193–206.

Chadwick, S., & Burton, N. (2008). From Beckham to Ronaldo -- Assessing the nature of football player brands. Journal of Sponsorship, 1(4), 307–317.

Chapanga, E., & Choto, I. (2015). A critical evaluation of persuasive communication discourses inspired by celebrity endorsement in the telecommunication sector in Zimbabwe. Journal for Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(1), 58–71.

Charbonneau, J., & Garland, R. (2005). Celebrity or athlete ? New Zealand advertising practitioners ’ views on their use as endorsers. Marketing Bulletin, 16, 35–42.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics Of Qualitative Research: Techniques And Procedures For Developing Grounded Theory (3rd ed.). London: Sage.

Cortsen, K. (2013). Annika Sörenstam – a hybrid personal sports brand. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 3(1), 37–62.

Crawford, G., & Gosling, V. K. (2004). The Myth of the “Puck Bunny”: Female Fans and Men’s Ice Hockey. Sociology, 38(3), 477–493.

Daley, C., & Wolfson, S. (2010). Leadership at distance : English football fans ’ trust in Sven-Göran Eriksson and David Beckham during the 2006. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review, 6(1), 3–18.

Dees, W., Bennett, G., & Villegas, J. (2008). Measuring the Effectiveness of Sponsorship of an Elite Intercollegiate Football Program. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(2), 79–89.

Dix, S., Phau, I., & Pougnet, S. (2010). “Bend it like Beckham”: the influence of sports celebrities on young adult consumers. Young Consumers, 11(1), 36–46.

Dubois, D., Rucker, D. D., & Tormala, Z. L. (2011). From Rumors to Facts, and Facts to Rumors: The Role of Certainty Decay in Consumer Communications. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(6), 1020–1032.

Dunne, S. (2012). The Irish bifocal and American sport: Exploring racial formation in the Irish Diaspora. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(4), 405–420.

Fink, J. S., Parker, H. M., Brett, M., & Higgins, J. (2009). Off-field behavior of athletes and team identification: using social identity theory and balance theory to explain fan reactions. Journal of Sport Management, 23(2), 142–155.

Frost, D. J. (2011). Seeing Stars-Sports Celebrity, Identity, and Body Culture in Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Goodman, J. R., Duke, L. L., & Sutherland, J. (2002). Olympic Athletes and Heroism in Advertising: Gendered Concepts of Valor? Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 79(2), 374–393.

Gorn, E. J. (1995). Muhammad Ali, the People’s Champ. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Grant, N., Heere, B., & Dickson, G. (2011). New Sport Teams and the Development of Brand Community. European Sport Management Quarterly, 11(1), 35–54.

Gutiérrez, M., Caus, N., & Ruiz, L. (2011). The influence of parents on achievement orientation and motivation for sport of adolescent athletes with and without disabilities. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(3), 355–382.

Hartmann, T., Stuke, D., & Daschmann, G. (2008). Positive Parasocial Relationships with Drivers Affect Suspense in Racing Sport Spectators. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(1), 24–34.

Hasaan, A., Kerem, K., Biscaia, R., & Agyemang, K. J. A. (2015). Athlete Brand : A Conceptual Framework to Understand Its Antecedents and Consequences. In 2015 North American Society for Sport Management Conference ( NASSM 2015 ) (pp. 317–318). Ottawa.

Hasaan, A., & Khalaid, J. (2014). Overseas fan loyalty: Pakistani football fans and foreign football clubs. In C.-K. Li & T.-W. H. Hung (Eds.), 2014 ISBM International Symposium, Nagoya, Japan (pp. 641–661). Nagoya.

Hsieh, L.-W., Wang, C.-H., & Yoder, T. W. (2011). Factors Associated with Professional Baseball Consumption: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Study. International Journal of Business and Information, 6(2), 135–159.

Hyman, M. R., & Sierra, J. J. (2010). Idolizing sport celebrities: a gateway to psychopathology? Young Consumers, 11(3), 226–238.

Jun, J. W., & Lee, H. M. (2012). The Globalization of Sport and the Mass-Mediated Identity of Hines Ward in South Korea. Journal of Sport Management, 26(2), 103–112.

Kerr, A. K., & Gladden, J. M. (2008). Extending the understanding of professional team brand equity to the global marketplace. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 3(1–2), 58–77.

Koernig, S. K., & Boyd, T. C. (2009). To Catch a Tiger or Let Him Go : The Match-up Effect and Athlete Endorsers for Sport and Non-Sport Brands. Sports Marketing Quaterly, 18(1), 25–37.

Künzler, D., & Poli, R. (2012). The African footballer as visual object and fi gure of success : Didier Drogba and social meaning. Soccer & Society, 13(2), 207–221.

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Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two-component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(I), 34–47.

Lebel, K., & Danylchuk, K. (2014). An Audience Interpretation of Professional Athlete Self-Presentation on Twitter. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 6(2), 16–36.

Li, C., Zayed, K., Muazzam, A., Li, M., Cheng, J., & Chen, A. (2015). Motives for Exercise in Undergraduate Muslim Women and Men in Oman and Pakistan Compared to the United States. Sex Roles, 72(1), 68–84.

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Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (1995). Designing Qualitative Research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Martin, C. A. (2013). Investigating National Football League (NFL) Fan Loyalty. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 7(1), 42–54.

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Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Kaplanidou, K. (2013). Athlete brand image: scale development and model test. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13(4), 383–403.

Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Ross, S. (2014). Branding athletes: Exploration and conceptualization of athlete brand image. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 97–106.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Best, S. (2013). Liquid fandom: Neo-tribes and fandom in the context of liquid modernity. Soccer and Society, 14(1), 80–92.

Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Ross, S., Rosado, A., & Maroco, J. (2013). Spectator-Based Brand Equity in Professional Soccer. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(1), 20–32.

Bush, V. D., Bush, A. J., Clark, P., & Bush, R. P. (2005). Girl power and word‐of‐mouth behavior in the flourishing sports market. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(5), 257–264.

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Carlson, B. D., & Donavan, D. T. (2013). Human Brands in Sport: Athlete Brand Personality and Identification. Journal of Sport Management, 27(3), 193–206.

Chadwick, S., & Burton, N. (2008). From Beckham to Ronaldo -- Assessing the nature of football player brands. Journal of Sponsorship, 1(4), 307–317.

Chapanga, E., & Choto, I. (2015). A critical evaluation of persuasive communication discourses inspired by celebrity endorsement in the telecommunication sector in Zimbabwe. Journal for Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(1), 58–71.

Charbonneau, J., & Garland, R. (2005). Celebrity or athlete ? New Zealand advertising practitioners ’ views on their use as endorsers. Marketing Bulletin, 16, 35–42.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics Of Qualitative Research: Techniques And Procedures For Developing Grounded Theory (3rd ed.). London: Sage.

Cortsen, K. (2013). Annika Sörenstam – a hybrid personal sports brand. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 3(1), 37–62.

Crawford, G., & Gosling, V. K. (2004). The Myth of the “Puck Bunny”: Female Fans and Men’s Ice Hockey. Sociology, 38(3), 477–493.

Daley, C., & Wolfson, S. (2010). Leadership at distance : English football fans ’ trust in Sven-Göran Eriksson and David Beckham during the 2006. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review, 6(1), 3–18.

Dees, W., Bennett, G., & Villegas, J. (2008). Measuring the Effectiveness of Sponsorship of an Elite Intercollegiate Football Program. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(2), 79–89.

Dix, S., Phau, I., & Pougnet, S. (2010). “Bend it like Beckham”: the influence of sports celebrities on young adult consumers. Young Consumers, 11(1), 36–46.

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Fink, J. S., Parker, H. M., Brett, M., & Higgins, J. (2009). Off-field behavior of athletes and team identification: using social identity theory and balance theory to explain fan reactions. Journal of Sport Management, 23(2), 142–155.

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Grant, N., Heere, B., & Dickson, G. (2011). New Sport Teams and the Development of Brand Community. European Sport Management Quarterly, 11(1), 35–54.

Gutiérrez, M., Caus, N., & Ruiz, L. (2011). The influence of parents on achievement orientation and motivation for sport of adolescent athletes with and without disabilities. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(3), 355–382.

Hartmann, T., Stuke, D., & Daschmann, G. (2008). Positive Parasocial Relationships with Drivers Affect Suspense in Racing Sport Spectators. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(1), 24–34.

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Hsieh, L.-W., Wang, C.-H., & Yoder, T. W. (2011). Factors Associated with Professional Baseball Consumption: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Study. International Journal of Business and Information, 6(2), 135–159.

Hyman, M. R., & Sierra, J. J. (2010). Idolizing sport celebrities: a gateway to psychopathology? Young Consumers, 11(3), 226–238.

Jun, J. W., & Lee, H. M. (2012). The Globalization of Sport and the Mass-Mediated Identity of Hines Ward in South Korea. Journal of Sport Management, 26(2), 103–112.

Kerr, A. K., & Gladden, J. M. (2008). Extending the understanding of professional team brand equity to the global marketplace. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 3(1–2), 58–77.

Koernig, S. K., & Boyd, T. C. (2009). To Catch a Tiger or Let Him Go : The Match-up Effect and Athlete Endorsers for Sport and Non-Sport Brands. Sports Marketing Quaterly, 18(1), 25–37.

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Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two-component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(I), 34–47.

Lebel, K., & Danylchuk, K. (2014). An Audience Interpretation of Professional Athlete Self-Presentation on Twitter. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 6(2), 16–36.

Li, C., Zayed, K., Muazzam, A., Li, M., Cheng, J., & Chen, A. (2015). Motives for Exercise in Undergraduate Muslim Women and Men in Oman and Pakistan Compared to the United States. Sex Roles, 72(1), 68–84.

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Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Kaplanidou, K. (2013). Athlete brand image: scale development and model test. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13(4), 383–403.

Arai, A., Ko, Y. J., & Ross, S. (2014). Branding athletes: Exploration and conceptualization of athlete brand image. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 97–106.

Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Best, S. (2013). Liquid fandom: Neo-tribes and fandom in the context of liquid modernity. Soccer and Society, 14(1), 80–92.

Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Ross, S., Rosado, A., & Maroco, J. (2013). Spectator-Based Brand Equity in Professional Soccer. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 22(1), 20–32.

Bush, V. D., Bush, A. J., Clark, P., & Bush, R. P. (2005). Girl power and word‐of‐mouth behavior in the flourishing sports market. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(5), 257–264.

Caioli, L. (2014). Messi, Neymar, Ronaldo: Head to Head with the World’s Greatest Players. London: Icon Books Ltd.

Carlson, B. D., & Donavan, D. T. (2013). Human Brands in Sport: Athlete Brand Personality and Identification. Journal of Sport Management, 27(3), 193–206.

Chadwick, S., & Burton, N. (2008). From Beckham to Ronaldo -- Assessing the nature of football player brands. Journal of Sponsorship, 1(4), 307–317.

Chapanga, E., & Choto, I. (2015). A critical evaluation of persuasive communication discourses inspired by celebrity endorsement in the telecommunication sector in Zimbabwe. Journal for Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(1), 58–71.

Charbonneau, J., & Garland, R. (2005). Celebrity or athlete ? New Zealand advertising practitioners ’ views on their use as endorsers. Marketing Bulletin, 16, 35–42.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics Of Qualitative Research: Techniques And Procedures For Developing Grounded Theory (3rd ed.). London: Sage.

Cortsen, K. (2013). Annika Sörenstam – a hybrid personal sports brand. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 3(1), 37–62.

Crawford, G., & Gosling, V. K. (2004). The Myth of the “Puck Bunny”: Female Fans and Men’s Ice Hockey. Sociology, 38(3), 477–493.

Daley, C., & Wolfson, S. (2010). Leadership at distance : English football fans ’ trust in Sven-Göran Eriksson and David Beckham during the 2006. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review, 6(1), 3–18.

Dees, W., Bennett, G., & Villegas, J. (2008). Measuring the Effectiveness of Sponsorship of an Elite Intercollegiate Football Program. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(2), 79–89.

Dix, S., Phau, I., & Pougnet, S. (2010). “Bend it like Beckham”: the influence of sports celebrities on young adult consumers. Young Consumers, 11(1), 36–46.

Dubois, D., Rucker, D. D., & Tormala, Z. L. (2011). From Rumors to Facts, and Facts to Rumors: The Role of Certainty Decay in Consumer Communications. Journal of Marketing Research, 48(6), 1020–1032.

Dunne, S. (2012). The Irish bifocal and American sport: Exploring racial formation in the Irish Diaspora. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(4), 405–420.

Fink, J. S., Parker, H. M., Brett, M., & Higgins, J. (2009). Off-field behavior of athletes and team identification: using social identity theory and balance theory to explain fan reactions. Journal of Sport Management, 23(2), 142–155.

Frost, D. J. (2011). Seeing Stars-Sports Celebrity, Identity, and Body Culture in Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Goodman, J. R., Duke, L. L., & Sutherland, J. (2002). Olympic Athletes and Heroism in Advertising: Gendered Concepts of Valor? Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 79(2), 374–393.

Gorn, E. J. (1995). Muhammad Ali, the People’s Champ. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Grant, N., Heere, B., & Dickson, G. (2011). New Sport Teams and the Development of Brand Community. European Sport Management Quarterly, 11(1), 35–54.

Gutiérrez, M., Caus, N., & Ruiz, L. (2011). The influence of parents on achievement orientation and motivation for sport of adolescent athletes with and without disabilities. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(3), 355–382.

Hartmann, T., Stuke, D., & Daschmann, G. (2008). Positive Parasocial Relationships with Drivers Affect Suspense in Racing Sport Spectators. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(1), 24–34.

Hasaan, A., Kerem, K., Biscaia, R., & Agyemang, K. J. A. (2015). Athlete Brand : A Conceptual Framework to Understand Its Antecedents and Consequences. In 2015 North American Society for Sport Management Conference ( NASSM 2015 ) (pp. 317–318). Ottawa.

Hasaan, A., & Khalaid, J. (2014). Overseas fan loyalty: Pakistani football fans and foreign football clubs. In C.-K. Li & T.-W. H. Hung (Eds.), 2014 ISBM International Symposium, Nagoya, Japan (pp. 641–661). Nagoya.

Hsieh, L.-W., Wang, C.-H., & Yoder, T. W. (2011). Factors Associated with Professional Baseball Consumption: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Study. International Journal of Business and Information, 6(2), 135–159.

Hyman, M. R., & Sierra, J. J. (2010). Idolizing sport celebrities: a gateway to psychopathology? Young Consumers, 11(3), 226–238.

Jun, J. W., & Lee, H. M. (2012). The Globalization of Sport and the Mass-Mediated Identity of Hines Ward in South Korea. Journal of Sport Management, 26(2), 103–112.

Kerr, A. K., & Gladden, J. M. (2008). Extending the understanding of professional team brand equity to the global marketplace. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 3(1–2), 58–77.

Koernig, S. K., & Boyd, T. C. (2009). To Catch a Tiger or Let Him Go : The Match-up Effect and Athlete Endorsers for Sport and Non-Sport Brands. Sports Marketing Quaterly, 18(1), 25–37.

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Gutiérrez, M., Caus, N., & Ruiz, L. (2011). The influence of parents on achievement orientation and motivation for sport of adolescent athletes with and without disabilities. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(3), 355–382.

Hartmann, T., Stuke, D., & Daschmann, G. (2008). Positive Parasocial Relationships with Drivers Affect Suspense in Racing Sport Spectators. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(1), 24–34.

Hasaan, A., Kerem, K., Biscaia, R., & Agyemang, K. J. A. (2015). Athlete Brand : A Conceptual Framework to Understand Its Antecedents and Consequences. In 2015 North American Society for Sport Management Conference ( NASSM 2015 ) (pp. 317–318). Ottawa.

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Hsieh, L.-W., Wang, C.-H., & Yoder, T. W. (2011). Factors Associated with Professional Baseball Consumption: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Study. International Journal of Business and Information, 6(2), 135–159.

Hyman, M. R., & Sierra, J. J. (2010). Idolizing sport celebrities: a gateway to psychopathology? Young Consumers, 11(3), 226–238.

Jun, J. W., & Lee, H. M. (2012). The Globalization of Sport and the Mass-Mediated Identity of Hines Ward in South Korea. Journal of Sport Management, 26(2), 103–112.

Kerr, A. K., & Gladden, J. M. (2008). Extending the understanding of professional team brand equity to the global marketplace. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 3(1–2), 58–77.

Koernig, S. K., & Boyd, T. C. (2009). To Catch a Tiger or Let Him Go : The Match-up Effect and Athlete Endorsers for Sport and Non-Sport Brands. Sports Marketing Quaterly, 18(1), 25–37.

Künzler, D., & Poli, R. (2012). The African footballer as visual object and fi gure of success : Didier Drogba and social meaning. Soccer & Society, 13(2), 207–221.

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Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two-component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(I), 34–47.

Lebel, K., & Danylchuk, K. (2014). An Audience Interpretation of Professional Athlete Self-Presentation on Twitter. Journal of Applied Sport Management, 6(2), 16–36.

Li, C., Zayed, K., Muazzam, A., Li, M., Cheng, J., & Chen, A. (2015). Motives for Exercise in Undergraduate Muslim Women and Men in Oman and Pakistan Compared to the United States. Sex Roles, 72(1), 68–84.

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Morrissey, S. (2009). “Un homme avant tout”: Zinedine Zidane and the sociology of a head-butt. Soccer & Society, 10(2), 210–225.

Mullin, C. J., & Dunn, L. F. (2002). Using baseball card prices to measure star quality and monopsony. Economic Inquiry, 40(4), 620–632.

Neale, L., & Funk, D. (2006). Investigating motivation, attitudinal loyalty and attendance behaviour with fans of Australian Football. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 7(4), 307–318.

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Saatchian, V., Hadavi, F., Elahi, A., Rasooli, M., & Alizadeh, A. (2010). Motivational Profiles of Soccer Fans in Iranian Pro League. In 11th International Sports Sciences Congress, Antalya 10 to 12 October 2010. (pp. 1–5).

Stever, G. S. (2011). Fan Behavior and Lifespan Development Theory: Explaining Para-social and Social Attachment to Celebrities. Journal of Adult Development, 18(1), 1–7.

Stewart, B., Smith, A. C. T., & Nicholson, M. (2003). Sport Consumer Typologies: A Critical Review. Sport Marketing Quarterly.

Tanaka, T. (2004). The positioning and practices of the “feminized fan” in Japanese soccer culture through the experience of the FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan 2002. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 5(1), 52–62.

Theysohn, S., Hinz, O., Nosworthy, S., & Kirchner, M. (2009). Official supporters clubs: The untapped potential of fan loyalty. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 10(4), 302–324.

Thomson, M. (2006). Human Brands: Investigating Antecedents to Consumers’ Strong Attachments to Celebrities. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), 104–119.

Till, B. D., & Busler, M. (2000). The Match-Up Hypothesis: Physical Attractiveness, Expertise, and the Role of Fit on Brand Attitude, Purchase Intent and Brand Beliefs. Journal of Advertising, 29(3), 1–13.

Vincent, J., Hill, J. S., & Lee, J. W. (2009). The Multiple Brand Personalities of David Beckham: A Case Study of the Beckham Brand. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 18(3), 173–180.

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